An overview of diabetes

What is Diabetes?

It is diabetes that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food we eat.

It can strike anyone from any walk of life. And it does- in number that is dramatically increasing. This is a serious series condition where your blood glucose level is too high.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces.

Diabetes is conditions that impair the body’s ability to process blood glucose, otherwise known as blood sugar. It is a serious complex condition which can affect the entire body.

Nowadays if we are looking around the world, it is common in every human being, especially old people are mostly suffering from this disease.

But we have to understand why it came and what is the root cause of it. If left untreated then it can cause many complications.

It is a growing health problem and it rises about six-fold since 1950. Diabetes-related health care costs total nearly $100 billion per year and are increasing. contributes to over 200000 deaths each year.

How diabetes work

In earlier topic, we have discussed million of people face and about a third don’t even know it. Find out some information you just may need.

Odds are that you know someone with this mellitus, possibility even someone who has to take insulin each day to manage the disease.

To understand this, you first need to know about how your body uses a hormone called insulin to handle your body glucose, a simple sugar that is its main source of energy.

In This case, sometimes goes wrong in your body so that you do not produce insulin or are not sensitive to it. Therefore, your body produced a high level of blood glucose.

Which act on many organs to produces the symptoms of the disease. In this article, we will look examine this serious disease. We will look at how your body handles glucose.

When you eat food, glucose gets absorbed from your intestines and distributed by the bloodstream to all of the cells in your body.

 Your body needs continuously supplying the glucose for maintaining your body cell and hormones, your body cell would have more than a meal we take.

So, when you have an oversupply of glucose, your body stores the excess in the liver and muscles by making glycogen,

 when glucose is in short supply, your body mobilized glucose from stored glycogen and other stimulates you to eat food.

The key is to maintain a constant blood glucose level in your body.

Type of diabetes:-

diabetes types

This is a type of disease in which where the body does not produce enough insulin and the body does not use produces insulin which is most important for our body.

A lack of insulin or resistance to insulin cause sugar to build up in your blood.this can lead to many health problems in our life.

The three main types of diabetes are:-

  1. Type 1 diabetes
  2. Type 2 diabetes
  3. Gestational diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes is believed to be an autoimmune condition. This means your immune system mistakenly attacks and destroyed the beta cells.

Chronic conditions in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. It typically appears in adolescence.

This happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include—

  • Being very thirsty
  • Urinating often
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Feeling tired
  • Having dry, itchy skin.
  • Losing the feeling in your feet
  • Having tingling in your feet
  • Having blurry eyesight

A blood test can show if you have a disease. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. A blood test can show how well you are managing your disease.

The pancreas loses its ability to make insulin because of the body’s immunes attacks and destroyed the cell that produces insulin in our body.

No one knows exactly what happens in this situation, but scientist thinks of it and does research on the root cause of this problem.

Who gets Type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes can not be prevented, and there is no real way to predict who will get it. Nothing that either a parent or the child did cause the disease.

Once a person has type 1 diabetes, it does not go away and required lifelong treatment.

Kids and teens with Type1 diabetes depend on daily insulin injection or an insulin pump to control their blood glucose levels.

How is Type 1 diabetes Diagnosed?

A doctor can say for sure if a person has diabetes by tasting blood sugars show that a child has the disease, other blood tests are usually done to help doctors find out of the child has Type1 diabetes, because the management of disease may differ based on type.

If diabetes is suspected or confirmed, the doctor may refer your child to a pediatric, a doctor who specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of kids with the disease of the endocrine system, such as disease and growth disorders.

How is Type 1 Diabetes Treated?

Treatment means good control to minimize symptoms, prevent health problems and help kids have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parent and kids should aim to keep blood sugar level levels within the goal range as much as you can do or possible.

In general, kids with Type1 diabetes need to:

  • Take insulin as prescribed
  • Eat a healthy, balanced diet with accurate carbohydrate counts
  • Check sugar level given as prescribed
  • Get a regular physical workout

Following the treatment plan help kids stay healthy, but treating this disease is not the same as curing it. Right now, there is no cure for disease , so kids with Type1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives.

What problem can happen with Type 1 diabetes?

If early symptoms of the disease are missed and treatment is not started, chemicals called ketones pain, smelling the breath,

 breathing problems and even loss of consciousness. Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken for the flu or appendicitis. Doctors call these serious conditions.

this also can cause long-term complications in some people, including heart disease, stroke, vision impairment, and kidney damage. It also can cause other problem throughout the body in the blood vessels, nerves, and gums.

There is good news, though- proper treatment can stop or control this disease symptom and reduce the risk of long- term problems.

What new in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes?

doctors and researcher are developing new equipment and already using devices that make blood glucose testing and insulin injections easier, less painful, and more effective.

One of these is the insulin pump, a mechanical device that can deliver insulin more as the pancreas does.

There is also been progress towards the development of a wearable or implantable, this consist of an insulin pump linked to a device that measures the person’s blood glucose.

Doctors and scientist are investing in a potential cure for diabetes. This involves transplanting insulin-producing cells into the body of a person with diabetes.

The researcher is also testing ways to stop disease before it starts. For example, the scientist is studying whether diabetes can be an increased risk for the disease.

Type 2 diabetes

The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults. Some million of Indian adults have been diagnosed with the disease.

Type 2 diabetes used to be called adults onset diabetes, but with the epidemic of obese and overweight kids, more teenagers are now developing Type 2 disease

Type 2 diabetes is also called non- insulin-development for diabetes. This disease is often a milder form of diabetes than Type1.

Nevertheless, Type 2 diabetes can still cause major health complications, particularly in the smallest blood vessels in the body that nourish the kidney, nerves, eyes. Type 2 disease also increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.

With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin. But either the amount produced is not enough for the kid’s body needs, or the body cells are resistant to it.

Pancreas can’t make enough insulin and lancet to test blood sugar, chronic conditions that affect the way the body processes blood sugar.

If diet and exercise are not enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Symptoms

Sign and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 disease for years and not know it. Look for:

  • Increase thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increase hunger
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow – healing sores
  • Frequent infections
  • Area of darkness skin, usually in the armpits and neck

Cause

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is enabled to produces enough insulin exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environments factors, such as being overweight.

Such as being overweight and inactive, seems to be contributing factors. This has to be solved quickly otherwise it goes wrong in our body.

How insulin work

Insulin is hormones that come from the gland situated behind and below the stomach and pancreas.

  • The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.
  • The insulin circulating, enabling sugar to enter your cells.
  • Insulins lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream
  • As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.

The role of glucose

Glucose –sugar is a main source of energy for the cells that makes up muscles and other tissues.

  • Glucose comes from two major sources, food and your liver.
  • Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstreams, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
  • Your liver stores and makes glucose.
  • When your glucose level is low, such as when you have not eaten in a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.

In type 2 diabetes, this process does not work well. Instead of moving into your cell, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. As blood sugar level increase.

 The insulin provides beta cells in the pancreas release more insulin, but eventually, these cells become impaired and can not make enough insulin to meet the body’s demand.

In the much less common type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroyed the beta cells, leaving the body with little to no insulin.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:

  • Weight: being overweight is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you do not have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
  • Fat distribution: If you store mainly in the abdomen, you have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere.

your risk of type 2 diabetes risks if you are a man with a waist circumferences above or women with a waist that is greater.

  • Inactivity: the less active you are, the greater your risk of type 2 diabetes, physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up helps you control weight.

uses up glucose as energy and makes your cell more sensitive to insulin.

  • Family history: the risk of type 2 diabetes increase if your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
  • Race: Although it is unclear why people of certain races- including black, Hispanic, American Indian and other people are most likely to develop.

Prevention

healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes, and that is true even if you have diabetes in your family. If you are already received a diagnosis of diabetes.

You can use healthy lifestyle choices to help prediabetes, lifestyle changes can slow or stop the progression of diabetes.

A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Eat healthy foods: choose lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruit, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Getting active. Aim for a minimum of 30 to 60 minute of moderate physical activities or 15 to 30 minute of vigorous aerobic activity on most days.

Take a brisk daily walk. Ride a bike. Swim laps. If you can not fit in a long workout, spread your activity throughout the day

Losing weight:-

if you are overweight, losing 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent change.

And maintain your habit and motivating yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a higher heart, more energy and improve self-esteem.

  • avoiding being sedentary for long periods:- sitting still for long periods can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and move around for at least a few minutes.

Sometimes medications are an option as well. Metformin, oral disease medications, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

But even if you take medication, healthy lifestyle choices remain essential for prevention or manages diabetes.

gestation diabetes

gestation diabetes is diabetes that occurs especially in women. There are typically no noticeable sign or symptoms associated with gestation diabetes.

Gestation diabetes is diabetes, or high blood sugar level, that develop during pregnancy. It occurs in about 4% of all pregnancies

Gestation diabetes usually is diagnosed in the later stages of pregnancy and often occurs in women who have no prior history of diabetes.

Gestation diabetes can cause the fetus to be larger than normal. Delivery of the baby may be more complicated as a result.

The baby is also at risk of developing low blood glucose immediately after birth.

Women with gestation disease have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy.

Cause

Gestation diabetes is thought to arise because of the many changes, hormonal and many factors are related to its cause.

And that occurs in the body during pregnancy resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by a specialized cell in the pancreases that allows.

The body to effectively metabolize glucose for letter usage as fuel.

When the level of insulin is low, or the body can not effectively use insulin.

How gestation diabetes affect the baby?

Women with gestation diabetes who received proper care typically go on to deliver healthy babies. However, if you have persistently elevated blood glucose can cause the fetus to be larger.

Possibly making delivery more complicated. The baby is also at risk of having low blood glucose immediately after birth. Other serious complications of poorly controlled gestation diabetes in the newborn.

If diabetes is present in early pregnancy, there is an increased risk of birth defects and miscarriage compares to that of a mother without disease.

A complication of gestational diabetes for mother?

  • women with gestations diabetes have a great chance of needing a cesarean birth, in part due to large infant size.
  • Gestations diabetes may increase the risk of preeclampsia, a maternal condition character by high blood pressure and protein in the urine.
  • women with diabetes may increase the risk of having type 2 diabetes after the pregnancy

     Can gestation diabetes be cured?

       Most women with gestation diabetes who receive treatment go on to deliver healthy babies. The risk of complications increases when blood glucose levels are not properly.

While some women with gestation diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes following delivery, this risk can be reduced by following a good nutrition plan, exercising, and maintain a healthy weight.

What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes?

Some degree of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance is normal in late pregnancy. However, in some women, this is enough to produce disease.

Several risk factors that can increase your risk of getting gestational diabetes, and include:-

  • Obesity
  • A history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
  • Previous delivery of an infant with a high birth weight
  • A parent or sibling

How diabetes affects your body?

Long term effect of diabetes on the body our blood vessels and nerves and therefore can affect any part of the body. However, a certain part of our body is affected more than other parts.

 Diabetes complication will usually take a number of years of poorly controlled diabetes to develop.

Knowing how disease affects our body can help you look after your body prevent diabetic complication from developing.

Many of the effect of diabetes steam from the same guilty parties, namely high blood pressure, high cholesterol level and a lack of blood glucose control.

Long term effect of diabetes on the body?

In addition to the symptoms, this can cause long term damage to our body. The long term damage is commonly referred to as diabetic complication.

Diabetes complication will usually take a number of years of poorly controlled diabetes to develop.

The complication is not a certainty and can be kept at bay and prevent by maintaining a strong level of control on your diabetes, your blood pressure, and cholesterol.

These can all help by keeping to a healthy diet, avoiding cigarettes and alcohol, and incorporating regular activity into your daily regime in order to keep blood sugar levels within recommended.

How diabetes affects the eyes

As with all complication, these conditions are brought on by a number of years of poorly controlled or uncontrolled. Diabetic retinopathy has a number of symptoms.

Retinopathy is caused by blood vessels in the back of the eye swelling and leaking. High blood pressure is also a controlling factor for diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated so it is best to catch it as early as you can. The best way to do this is to attend a retinopathy screening appointment.

Provided free on the NHS, once each year.

Effect of diabetes on the kidneys

The kidney is another organ that is at particular risk of damage as a result of disease and the risk is again increased by poorly controlled diabetes, high blood pressure, and cholesterol.

Diabetic nephropathy is the term for kidney disease as a result of it.

Damage ton the kidneys takes place over a period of years and can be picked up by nephropathy screening before it gets too serious.

Treatment includes lifestyle changes and may include medicine to treat high blood pressure and cholesterol.

Is diabetes curable?

No cure for diabetes currently exists, but the disease can go into remission.

When this goes into remission, it means that the body does not show any sign of disease although the disease is technically still present.

Doctors have not come to a final consensus on what exactly constitution remission,

 but they all include A1c levels below 6 percent as a significant factor. A1c level indicates a persons blood sugar level over 3 months.

According to diabetes care, remission can take a different form:-

  • Partial remission:- When a person has maintained a blood glucose level lower than that of a person with the disease for at least 1 year without needing to use any diabetes medication.
  • Complete remission:- When the blood glucose level returns to normal levels completely outside of the range of or prediabetes and stay there for at least 1 year without any medication.
  • Prolonged remission:- When complete remission lasts for least 5 years.

Even if persons maintain a normal blood sugar level for 20 years, doctors would still consider their to be in remission rather than cured.

Do diabetics die earlier?

Statistically, In results in lower life expectancy than people without diabetes. However, it is not all doom and gloom and there are steps you can take which can help you to increase your likelihood.

Type 2 diabetes is more of inflammatory disease, hence it is more damaging to the body. A 2010 report by the disease UK claims that reduces the lifespan by 10 years.

 A 2012 Canadian study claimed that women aged over 55 years with type 2 diabetes lost an average of 6 years while men lost 5.

Are diabetes tests accurate?

New diabetes test could be more accurate. A new test could be more accurate than those currently used,

 for more than 400 million people with around the world, blood testing is a routine part of managing their disease.

Those tests, however, are not always accurate for a variety of reasons. A team researchers think there might be a better way,

 the researcher says they have devised a new method for estimating blood sugar levels that can reduce errors by more than 50 percent.

The researcher published their findings today in the journal science translation medicine.

In this study, they combined a mathematical model of hemoglobin glycation in red blood cells with large data sets of patients glucose measurements.

It indicates that the age of red blood cells is a major indicator of A1C variation because of hemoglobin accumulates more sugar over time.

When they controlled the age of cells and tested it more than 200 people, they say error rate went from 1 in 3 to 1 in 10.

What’s wrong with the current tests

The current gold standard for screening is the glychemoglobin test. It is a general gauge of control that specified an average blood glucose level over a few months.

It measures glucose that sticks to hemoglobin inside red blood cells. On a more daily basis, people with typically check their blood using meters, which measures the blood glucose.

There are also fasting blood sugar tests, which is often used to diagnose prediabetes, there are also a lot of different possibilities with each test.

Temperature and testing equipment are just a few things that can affect blood monitors and their readings, the mayo clinic reports.

In addition, a normals fastings blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. Some people may have a blood glucose test that indicates while their A1C is normal,

What food cause diabetes

Importantly, eating wrong food can raise your blood sugar and insulin level and promote inflammation, which may increase your risk of disease.

Here the list of 11 food that people with prediabetes should avoid.

Sugar-sweetened beverages:- sodas and sweet drinks are high in carbs, which increase blood sugar.

 Also, their high fructose contents have been linked to insulin resistance and increase the risk of obesity, fatty liver, and another disease.

  • Trans foods:- Trans food are unsaturated fats that have been chemically altered to increase their stability. They have been linked to inflammation,

Insulin resistance, increased belly fat and heart disease.

  • White bread, pasta, and rice:- White bread, pasta, and rice are high in carbs yet low in fiber. This combination can result in a high blood sugar level.

Alternatively, choosing high fiber, whole foods may help reduce sugar response.

  • Fruit- flavored yogurt:- Fruit-flavored yogurts are usually low in fat but high in sugar, blood sugar, and insulin levels. Plain, whole- milk yogurt is a better choice for control and overall health.

Other 5 type

Sweetened breakfast cereals:- Eating cereal is one of the worst ways to start your day if you have diabetes. Eating cereal is one of the worst ways to start your day if you have diabetes. A high protein, low- carb breakfast is the best option for appetite control.

  • Flavored coffee drinks:- flavored coffee drinks are very high in liquid carbs, which can raise blood sugar level and fail to satisfy your hunger.
  • Honey, agave nectar and maple syrup:- Honey, agave nectar and maple syrup are not as processed as white table sugar, but they may have similar effects on blood sugar, insulin, and inflammatory markets.
  • Dried fruit:- fruit is a great source of vitamin, dried fruit becomes more concentrated in sugar and may contain more than three times as many carbs as fresh fruit does.

avoid dried fruit and choose fruit in sugar for optimal blood sugar control

  • Packages snack foods:- packages snacks are typically highly processed foods made from prosses foods made from refining flour that can quickly raise your blood sugar levels.
  • French fries:- In addition to being high in carbs that raise blood sugar levels, French fries are fried in unhealthy oils that may promote inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease and cancer.

 

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